Lawrence E. Bethune's
Musical Unique Scottish Identifiable Characteristic
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Scotunes: Seeking Evidence of the Rules of MUSICs in Carolina
In this section, we will first establish the body of tunes for analysis and then search these tunes for evidence that the observations and rules established in the previous section survived the sea crossing from Scotland to Carolina and took root in America.
Establishing the catalog of Scotunes in Colonial Carolina
We will draw our tunes from two major collections. The first group of tunes comes from a collection of folk sons called the Songs of the Carolina Charter Colonists 1663-1763 (Hudson 1962). This collection is useful in many ways because it shows what tunes existed in oral tradition in colonial Carolina and were still in the tradition throughout the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. It also documents what songs were available in written or printed form during in colonial times. And while it does not necessarily prove that these written materials were available in the area of Carolina under study, it does surmise that most, if not all, did exist in Carolina, for those who would learn tunes in this manner. However, the fact that the collection verifies that these songs were sung or existed in writing in Carolina supports the argument that the tunes safely migrated from Scotland and survived the journey to take root in colonial Carolina.
According to Hudson, several of the collections used were popular in the eighteenth century. The core of Thomas Percys Reliques was the Percy Folio Manuscript (c. 1650) and the forty-five ballads he took from this were much earlier than 1650. Allan Ramsays The Ever Green (c. 1724) and The Tea-Table Miscellany (c. 1727) were widely known and used in Scotland. Hudson makes an interesting statement regarding his assumptions as to the use of The Tea Table Miscellany in Carolina:
The Tea-Table Miscellany went through at least nineteen editions. It is an interesting coincidence that the nineteenth edition, published at Dublin in 1794, a copy of which is in the University [x] of North Carolina Library, appeared in the same year in which Old East Building, on the campus of the first state university, was completed. How the Library obtained this copy is not known, but it may well have been brought to North Carolina by an English or a Scottish emigrant, just as the earlier editions were probably brought over by the first settlers. We can be certain that Colonists who brought any books of a popular nature had one or both of Ramsays songbooks in their luggage, and that if so those brought over were used much more frequently than we in the days of paper backs use particular books today. True, the music was not included in these two. But the tunes to songs, often referred to after the titles, were known to everybody. (Hudson, 1962, p. ix)
Also used in the Hudson collection was Francis J. Childs collection of old English and Scottish traditional songs. The Child collection is thought by many to be the standard reference for English and Scottish ballads. It contains 305 distinct ballads in about 1,100 versions and variants, with about 50 tunes. Just less than half the ballads, about 125 of the 305, have been found in oral circulation in the United States. The area in this study, North Carolina, accounts for 55 ballads, and Hudson states that evidence shows these ballads existed before 1663, some of them from two to three centuries earlier. We will use most but not all of these tunes, because some of the hymns and other songs were clearly identified as Scottish but of English or some other origin. Those that have been identified as possibly English or Scottish may have been included if there was some indication in Hudson or another source that the ballad could have been Scottish. Of course, even under the best of circumstances, national origin is questionable. The writer will opt for those most likely sounding Scottish, which is, after, the objective of this research.
The second collection we will look at is the Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore. We will use some but not all of these tunes from these collections, because some of the hymns and other songs were clearly identified as Scottish but of English or some other origin. Those that have been identified as possibly English or Scottish may have been included if there was some indication in Hudson or another source that the ballad could have been Scottish. Of course, even under the best of circumstances, national origin is questionable. The writer will opt for those most likely sounding Scottish, which is, after, the objective of this research.
First, we will list those ballads that are believed (by Hudson and his sources) to be Scottish, preceded by the key for identifying the original sources.
BCNCF: The Frank C. Brown Collection of North
BMCB: Bertrand E. Bronson. The Music of the Child Ballads
BABS: Peter Buchan. Ancient Ballads and Songs of the North of Scotland Hitherto Unpublished.
CESPB: Francis James Child. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. 5 vols. Boston, 1882-1898.
HJRS: James Hogg. The Jacobite Relics of Scotland....Edinburgh, 1821.
HFC: The Arthur Palmer Hudson Folklore Collection
HFM: Arthur Palmer Hudson. Folksongs of Mississippi and Their Background.
JSMM: James Johnson. The Scots Musical Museum.
MJSB: G. S. Macquoid. Jacobite Songs and Ballads. London, n.d.
NCF: North Carolina Folklore, journal of the North Carolina Folklore Society, vol. I (1948); II-X (1954-1962).
REG: Allan Ramsay. The Ever Green.... Edinburgh, ca. 1724-1737.
RTTM: Allan Ramsay. The Tea-Table Miscellany nineteenth edition. Dublin, 1794.
SEFSA: Cecil J. Sharp. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians,
From Hudson, just over 100 ballads were chosen that were either noted as Scottish, mixed Scottish with English or some other origin, or some other indication of Scottish influence. The list below was then reduced to a clearer group of most likely Scottish ballad; meaning either clearly from Scotland or so popular in Scotland that many assumed them to be and heard them as Scottish.
BABYLON; OR, THE BONNY BANKS O FORDY: CESPB 14
(from Scotland, latter part of 18th c., but much older);
BMCB.I.248-252 (with tune); BCNCF.II.44-46
THE BANKS OF CLAUDIE (CLOUDY): Not in BCNCF but well known in the South
BOBBY SHAFTO: Northumberland song known in North Carolina and most other states
BONNY BARBARA ALLAN: CESPB 84 especially her little Scotch song of Barbary Allen; BCNCF.II.111-131 (31 versions and variants), IV.57-69 (with tune)
THE BONNY EARL OF MURRAY: CESPB 181 (referring to troubles at the Scottish court in December 1591); RTTM, 1750 ed.; BCNCF.II.160-161, IV.83 (with tune)
THE BROWN GIRL: CESPB 295 (1788, related to older ballad)
CAPTAIN KIDD (KIDDS LAMENT): BCNCF II.350-351
CAPTAIN WEDDERBURNS COURTSHIP: CESPB 45 (a very old story, first appearing in recorded ballads of the 18th c.); BMCB I.362-375 (with tune); BCNCF II.48-49, IV.25-27 (with tune)
CAROLINE OF EDINBURGH TOWN: BCNCF II.358-359; Widely known in America.
CHARLIE IS MY DARLING: HJRS 92-93. So popular in the South that it has gone over into a play-party or dance song. [with tune on page 30]
THE CHERRY TREE CAROL: BCNCF II.61-63
COCK ROBIN: BCNCF IV.330-331 (with tune)
CORN RIGS ARE BONNY: RTTM 119
THE CRAFTY FARMER (THE YORKSHIRE BITE): BCNCF II.188-190, IV.119-120 (with tune)
THE CRUEL BROTHER: (earliest text 1776, but ballad much older); BCNCF II.35-38
THE CRUEL MOTHER
THE DEATH OF QUEEN JANE: Not in BCNCF, but recorded in NC
DOWN AMONG THE DEAD MEN: RTTM 260; an old drinking song.
DROP THE HANDKERCHIEF: BCNCF I. 81-82.
EARL BRAND (THE DOUGLAS TRAGEDY): BCNCF II.27-32, IV.8-l3 (with tune)
EDWARD: BCNCF II.41-44, IV. 23-24 (with tune)
THE ELFIN KNIGHT: BCNCF II.12-15, IV.3-4 (with tune); Usually known as The Cambric Shirt.
FAIR MARGARET AND SWEET WILLIAM: BCNCF II.79-84, IV.40-43 (with tune)
THE FALSE KNIGHT UPON THE ROAD: not in BCNCF but well known in N. C
FLORAS LAMENT: MJSB, pp. 266-267
FROGGIE WENT A-COURTIN (THE FROGS COURTSHIP): BCNCF III.154-166, V. 85-96 First mentioned in The Complaynt of Scotland, 1548, under the name The Frog came to the myl door.DUNT, DUNT, PITTIE PATTIE (Tune, Yellow-haird Laddie): RTTM 382
GEORDIE: BCNF II.168-169, IV.91-95 (with tune)
GET UP AND BAR THE DOOR: BCNCF II.183-185, IV.112 (with tune)
GREEN GRAVEL: BCNCF I. 56-57
GREEN GROW THE RASHES O: Words by Robert Burns to an old Scottish air
THE GREY COCK: Not in BCNCF, was recorded in Hot Springs, N. C
THE GYPSY LADDIE: BCNCF II. 161-169, IV.84-91 (with tune)
HOG DROVERS: B. A. Botkin, The American Play-Party (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1937), pp. 205-206.
HUL GUL: BCNCF
IT WAS A FOR OUR RIGHTFU KING: HJSR 26. [with tune on page 36]
JAMES HARRIS (THE DAEMON LOVER, THE HOUSE CARPENTER): BCNCF II.171-180, IV.95-101 (with tune)
THE JOLLY MILLER (THE MILLER BOY): BCNCF III. 108-109, V. 54-55 (with tune)
KATHARINE JAFFRAY: BCNCF II.169-171
KILLIECRANKIE: known in the Middle West, Kentucky, and Tennessee, as Kila Ma Cranky
KILLIECRANKIE: HJSB 40-41 (one version pub. in JSMM); not in BCNCF, but it has been in oral tradition in North Carolina by emigrants from the Highland Scots. [with tune page 37]
KING HENRY FIFTHS CONQUEST OF FRANCE: not in BCNCF, but in Folksongs from the Southern Highlands
KING WILLIAM WAS KING JAMESS SONG: BCNCF V. 522-524 (with tune)
KNIGHT AND SHEPHERDS DAUGHTER: BCNCF II.149-151
LADY ALICE: BCNCF II.131-140, IV.69-74 (with tune)
LADY ISABEL AND THE ELF KNIGHT: BCNCF II.15-26, IV.2-8 (with tune)
LAMKIN: BCNCF II.140-143, IV.74-76 (with tune)
THE LASS OF ROCH ROYAL: BCNCF II.88-92, IV.47-48 (with tune)
LASSIE, LIE NEAR ME: HJRS 211-212. [with tune on page 38]
LEAVE OFF YOUR FOOLISH PRATING: RTTM 220-221
LETS GO A-HUNTING, SAYS RICHARD TO ROBERT (THE HUNTING OF THE WREN). (An old nursery song long known in England and Scotland): BCNCF II. 215-216
LITTLE MUSGRAVE AND LADY BARNARD (LITTLE MATTIE GROVES): BCNCF II.101-111, IV.53-57 (with tune)
LOGIE O BUCHANS JSMM (1781-1803, from oral tradition in Mississippi, which drew a considerable percentage of its population from North Carolina.
LORD LOVEL: BCNCF II.84-88, IV.43-47 (with tune)
LORD RANDAL: BCNCF II.39-41, IV.19-24 (with tune)
LORD THOMAS AND FAIR ANNET (ELEANOR): BCNCF II.69-79, IV.30-43 (with tune)
LOVE WILL FIND OUT THE WAY: RTTM 146-147
THE MERMAID: BCNCF II.195-198, IV.124-125 (with tune)
THE MILLER OF THE DEE:
O DEAR, WHAT CAN THE MATTER BE?
OER THE SEAS AND FAR AWA: HJSB 51. [with tune on page 40]
OLD WITCH (CHICK-O-MY-CRANEY-CROW):
OVER THE HILLS AND FAR AWAY (Tune, Over the Hills and Far Away): RTTM 372
OUR GOODMAN: BCNCF II.181-183, IV.103-111 (with tune)
PRETTY FAIR MAID: BCNCF II.304-305, IV.169-178 (with tune)
PRINCE CHARLES AND FLORA MACDONALDS WELCOME TO SKYE: MJSB 241
QUEEN ELEANORS CONFESSION: BCNCF II.160
RIDDLES WISELY EXPOUNDED: Known in North Carolina as The Devils Nine Questions.
ROBIN HOOD AND GUY OF GISBORNE: BCNCF II.151-152
ROBIN HOOD RESCUING THREE SQUIRES (WIDOWS THREE SONS): BCNCF II.152-155, IV.81-82
ROGERS COURTSHIP: RTTM 329-330:
SALLY IN OUR ALLEY: RTTM 204-205; by Henry Carey (1696-1743)
SHULE ARON: BCNCF II. 362-365: an old Jacobite song; Gaelic version in Journal of American Folklore XXII. 387-388
THE SILK MERCHANTS DAUGHTER: BCNCF 331-334
SIR HUGH; OR, THE JEWS DAUGHTER: BCNCF II.155-160, IV 82-83 (with tune)
SIR LIONEL (OLD BANGUM): Old Bangum, as it is known in North Carolina
SIR PATRICK SPENS: BCNCF II.63-65, IV.29 (with tune)
SKYE BOAT SONG: A Book of Scotland (London and Glasgow: Collins, 1959), p. 137
THE SUFFOLK MIRACLE: BCNCF II.180-181, IV. 102-103 (with tune)
THE SWEET TRINITY (THE GOLDEN VANITY, OR THE LOWLANDS LOW): BCNCF II.191-195, IV.191-195 (with tune)
SWEET WILLIAMS FAREWELL TO BLACK-EYED SUSAN: RTTM 198-199. By John Gay
SWEET WILLIAMS GHOST; BCNCF. II.92-94, IV.48 (with tune)
THOMAS RYMER: BCNCF II.46-47
THREE DUKES: BCNCF I. 89-93.
THE THREE RAVENS: BCNCF II.46
TROOPER AND MAID: BCNCF II.198-199, IV. 124-125
THE TRUE LOVERS FAREWELL: Not in BCNCF but it is well known in the South
THE TWA SISTERS: II.32-41, IV.13-18
THE TWA BROTHERS: BCNCF II.48-49, IV. 25-27
THE UNQUIET GRAVE: BCNCF II.94-95
VILLIKINS AND DINAH: BCNCF II.482-484, IV.203-204 (with tune)
WALY, WALY, GIN LOVE BE BONNY: RTTM 153-154. traditionally sung in North
THE WEE WEE MAN: BCNCF II.47-48
WEEVILY WHEAT: BCNCF V. 521. Described by Botkin (The American Play-Party Song, 345) as A Virginia reel related to the Scotch Weaving Game.... Based on a Jacobite song of Bonnie Prince Charles Stuart, the Pretender. Compare Come Boat Me Oer and Over the Water to Charlie.
THE WIFE OF USHERS WELL: BCNCF II.95-101, IV.48-53
THE WIFE WRAPT IN WETHERS SKIN: BCNCF II.185-188, IV.113-116 (with tune)
WILLIAM HALL: BCNCF IV.348-350 (with tune)
YOUNG BEICHAN: BCNCF II.50-61, IV.27-30 (with tune)
YOUNG HUNTING: BCNCF IV.29-30 (with tune)
YOUNG WATERS: BCNCF II.65-69, IV.29
The Frank C. Brown Collection ..[duplicate those above but able to match a tune; show all duplicates and then choose.]
From these two lists, the following tunes were